Bansonyi


     Art can be used to study the progression of a civilization
through time. Art is usually used to express oneís beliefs religiously,
politically, and sometimes as a source of communication, which is accomplished
through imagery. Symbols in works of art can be related to nature and myths.1

From the beginning of Chinese history, art and philosophy worked hand-in-hand
with the creation of a work of art. Chinese art was used as evidence of a
personís behavior and attitude towards nature and other beings (e.g. the nicer
the painting the better the person.)2 During the seventh and eighth centuries

Chinese art was at its peak. China at this time was under the jurisdiction of
the Tíang Dynasty. Because of the beautiful work being manufactured China
became a multinational society. Paintings and sculptures were not the only works
that China would receive admiration for. Their music and literature (poems which
sometimes explained works of art) were also at their richest points,3 Tíang
art has incomparable vigor, realism, dignity... There is an optimism, an energy,
a frank acceptance of tangible reality which gives the same character to all

Tíang art, whether it be the most splendid fresco from the hand of a master or
the humblest tomb figurine made by the village potter. (Sullivan 160) When a
piece of artistic work was considered good all that really mattered was the
amount of effort that went into the piece and not the derivation of the
personís economic class. Scarce materials were used very often in the creation
of Chinese artifacts. One of the mot famous and revered stones used was Jade,
which was very hard and indestructible. Jade cannot be found in China; it was
traded with Burma, which is located on the outer edge of China, so it is amazing
to know how much work was done with it in the 600 and 700 era. Jade was usually
used in burials in the sealing of the orifices of the body. This mineral was
also recognized for having a beautiful reverberating tone. Jade was carved by
pulverizing it with the assistance of an abrasive powder, a skill that was
modified from the Shang craftsmen from their Neolithic craftsmen.4 The fine work
on the Emerald was done through the use of a wire saw for fine details. Then it
is smoothed with a polishing wheel.5 In the process of working with Jade the
artisan would have to form a respect induced relationship between self and the
material. When the artist first receives the material he would not begin to
carve because the contour, proportions, and decoration of the piece would depend
on religious ceremony. Craftsmen would sometimes study a piece of Jade for many
years before deciding what to do with it. Jade comes in an array colors ranging
from yellow to brown and from light green to bright green, black and dark purple
and those of the highest value were white. Each color of Jade had a specific
classification such as ink black, snow, kingfisher green, sea green, grass
green, vermilion red and mutton-fat. Green stones in Chinese culture are deemed
for having healing powers. That was my main reason for having such an interest
in relics made from green minerals.6 The piece I chose to study is called the

Nine Elders of the Huichang, Mountain Scene of the celebrated gathering in 845

C.E. The Jade used is green nephrite from Hotan. This piece sits in the Peking

Palace Museum. It stands 4 ft. high, 3 ft. wide and weighs 1,830 pounds. This
piece was completed in 1786 with the addition of a poem engraved on the back of
the figurine by the Qianlong emperor. The frontal view illustrates a scene of
the first and second elders playing chess in the gazebo and the third elder
observing. Below that a small servant boy is boiling water for tea. The fourth
and fifth elders are conversing and strolling over the bridge, followed by
another boy servant. The remaining four elders can be seen on the reverse side
of the effigy. The sixth elder has his hand on a boyís head and they are both
absorbing the beauty of nature. The seventh senior is walking with the
assistance of a bamboo stick and his boy attendant is following behind him. The
eighth superior is playing a string instrument called a Qin making music for the
listening pleasure of the ninth senior and his boy servant.7 I was drawn to this
piece because it contained such great detail and symbolism. This artifact shows
the significance of the respect one should have towards elders. This piece also
elaborates on the importance of nature to the Chinese culture. The mountains,
trees, and waterfalls are engraved in great detail and that is what makes the
carving seem life-like. BIBLIOGRAPHY Burling Hart, Judith and Arthur. Chinese

Art. Studio Publications, Inc. Froneck, Thomas. Horizon Book of the Arts of

China - Horizon Magazine Sickman, Laurence and Super, Alexander. The Art and

Architecture of China. Penguin Books Ltd. Third Edition. 1968. Sullivan,

Michael. The Arts of China. University of California Press. Los Angeles: 1973

Tregear, Mary. Chinese Art. Thames and Hudson Inc. Revised Edition 1997. Weng,

Wang-go and Boda, Yang. The Palace Museum: Peking Treasures of the Forbidden

City. The Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York: 1982 Sharon Matute September 26, 1999

Art 101- 007 Professor Sax African carvings were not considered to be works of
art to the African people. They were used for religious purposes and magical
ceremonies. A carved image was not an idol or an image of God. It was the proper
place for a spirit to dwell. There were many different kinds of spirits, e.g.
the earth, lightning, sun, moon, spirits of the tribal founders which needed a
home or dwelling place so they can be categorized. Hence, the statues were used
to give the spirits an identity. They were also spirits who were blamed for
misfortunes when they occurred. When the spirit enters the statue, it was a
tribal custom to provide for the statute as one would for a human. Since the

Africans associated the carvings with religion, the sculptures helped them to
deal with their psychological issues.