Islamic Art And Architecture


     Islamic art and architecture points to the artistic accomplishments in the lands
where Islam was the dominant religion and from the seventh century on. These
lands were the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Anatolia and the Balkans, and
central and northern India. All the monuments and artistic objects, which may
have been made with different materials and techniques, have a common artistic
language. Islamic art was an art created for the setting of every day life. The
most notable religious art were the mosque and the minaret. These were made with
the purpose of having a place where people could express their devotion and
learn the principles of the faith. Islamic painting developed in the form of
book illustration and illumination. These paintings were made to help explain a
scientific text and\or to reinforce the pleasure of reading literature or
history. There are certain techniques that distinguish the decorative arts of
the Islamic arts. These techniques involve the application of shimmering glazes
and rich colors in ceramics and glassware. Other techniques include
sophisticated silver inlays that convert the surfaces of bronze metalworks,
extravagant designed stucco and wall panels made of carved wood, and textiles
and carpets woven into millions of different patterns. 2 The oldest figurative
representation of Islamic arts correspond to mosaics and painted murals. All of
these are related to architecture since they were used to cover and decorate the
walls of several constructions. These could have been religious or
anti-religious places. The mosaics in these buildings are unique in that in them
there are no representations of animals or humans. These absences are due to
religious reasons. Only plants, big trees, and combinations of landscapes and
architectonics, either real or invented, appeared in the mosaics. In the
eighteenth century the use of the mosaics declined. On the contrary, the use of
mural paintings had a long life in the Muslim art. It also represents a
particular detail. This is its exclusive use of civilian characters in the
buildings. In the Qusayr Amra palace there are remarkably, rich mural paintings.

Here there are representations of hunting, athletic scenes, dancers,
construction sites, the zodiac signs, historical characters, poetry, thoughts,
etc., and a group of people surrounding another person in a throne. In
conclusion Islamic art and architecture vary in a variety of ways because of
religious reasons. 3 Islamic art in my opinion is very interesting and
extraordinary. It is very cult and unique in that it displays many cultural
diversity and religion. Painters and architects made these masterpieces showing
scenes of everyday life. It reflect's the artistic creativity and ingenuity of
these artists. It also reverberates typical customs of these people. The
painting on the next page is the one that I will criticize. The first step is
the description where I will tell the name of the painting, who made it, when it
was made, and where it was made. Later I will explain the analysis which will
say the elements and principles of art and how they are used. After that there
will be an explanation of the interpretation. This will say how the time and
place affected the artist's painting. Finally I will say the judgement. This
will explain if the artwork contributes to the history of art. Description This
painting is called "Laila and Majnun at School". It was made by the

Persian artist Bihzad in 1494. It was painted in Her t but is know located in

Afghanistan. It shows faces drawn with a sense of grace. There are many people
working. There is also a large tree which has some fruits in it. There is 4 also
what appears to be two openings to go out or into a building. Analysis The
elements used in this painting are line, shape, value, color, and texture. You
can see that lines are used in the edges of the wall, the small fence
surrounding the tree, and in the borders of the painting. Squared and
rectangular shapes may be seen in the fence and the openings in the wall. Value
is used because although the painting seems very yellowish the tree has a
totally different color because it is gray. There is also a large variety of
colors in the clothes of the people. Texture is used in the wall of the
painting. The principles used were proportion and emphasis. You can see that the
proportions of the people are right in size compared to the walls. The emphasis
is made on the tree which is bigger than everything else and is a bit different
in color. Interpretation At this time the people painted the characteristics of
daily life. In this particular painting there is a reflection of a normal
everyday life of people with the Islam culture. It shows the influence of

Chinese landscapes in the flat 5 layered perspective of the painting. The gold
colored background is unusual though, for a painting of the 16th century. So the
time and place did affect the painting.Judgement In my opinion I think that this
work of art does contribute to the history of art. This is because it reflects
the typical customs of the past every day life. This makes it easier to
understand the facts of that past time. 6 "Laila and Majnun at

School", by Bihzad in 1494. 7 Masjid-I Shah in E fah n, Iran "Dome of

The Rock" in Jerusalem 8 "Taj Mahal" in India. Ardab l Turkish

Carpet Mug made for (16th the tomb- Century) mosque of Shash Tahmasp at Ardab l,

Iran 9 Suleimanniye Mosque at Istanbul in 1550.

Bibliography
"Islamic Art and Architecture". Encarta Interactive. ©1998, CD-Rom
"Arte Islámico". Las Claves Del Arte Islámico. Alfredo J. Morales,

Editorial Planeta (1991 ed.) Barcelona, España